• Biscuit firing: a firing process for carefully removing carbon material from a product; as the temperature rises the process forms strong ceramic bonds which are critical to the strength and performance of the pipes. Uniform firing leads to more consistently shaped fired products which is important to meet tight size tolerances.
  • Glaze firing: some clay bodies do not fully vitrify during biscuit firing, so the pipes are glazed and refired to improve performance and also to reduce water absorption.